What Are Take-Out Containers Made Of?

What Are Take-Out Containers Made Of?

Take-out containers are an essential part of the food service industry, allowing restaurants to provide convenient, portable meals for customers on the go. These containers come in various materials, each with its own set of benefits and drawbacks. But what are these food containers made of? Are they eco-friendly and are they food-friendly? Let’s dive into the details.

Common Materials for Take-Out Containers


Plastic is the most common material for take-out containers because it’s practical and economic. Plastic containers are lightweight, which reduces transportation costs and makes them easy to handle. They are also durable, resisting breaks and cracks, unlike glass or ceramic. This durability ensures that food can be transported without the risk of container damage. To break down, here are some common types of plastic made food containers for take out.

Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET): Commonly used for clear containers and bottles. It is lightweight, durable, and resistant to impacts and leaks. It’s the most common material for making plastic food containers.

Polypropylene (PP): Known for its resistance to heat, making it suitable for microwave-safe containers. It is also lightweight and durable.

Polystyrene (PS): Often used for foam containers (Styrofoam) due to its excellent insulation properties. It keeps food warm for extended periods.


  • Durability: Plastic containers are strong and can withstand various temperatures.
  • Leak-Proof: They prevent spills and leaks, making them ideal for liquids and greasy foods.
  • Cost-Effective: Plastic is relatively inexpensive to produce, keeping costs low for restaurants and consumers.


  • Environmental Impact: Most plastics are not biodegradable and contribute to environmental pollution. They can take hundreds of years to decompose.
  • Recycling Challenges: While some plastics are recyclable, many are not, leading to significant waste.

Paper and Cardboard

Paper-based take-out containers are increasingly popular as environmentally friendly alternatives to plastic. They are typically coated or treated to enhance their durability and functionality. Here’s an overview of the types of paper materials used for take-out containers and their respective pros and cons:

Types of Paper Materials

PE (Polyethylene) Coated Paper

Polyethylene coating provides a moisture barrier, making the paper resistant to grease and liquid. It’s relatively inexpensive and can be heat sealed, which is useful for packaging hot and cold foods.

While PE-coated paper is more recyclable than traditional plastics, the plastic coating can complicate the recycling process as it must be separated from the paper. It is not compostable due to the plastic content.

PLA (Polylactic Acid) Coated Paper

PLA is made from renewable resources like cornstarch or sugarcane. It is biodegradable and compostable under industrial composting conditions, making it a more sustainable option than PE. It also provides a good barrier against grease and oil.

PLA coatings require industrial composting facilities to break down effectively, which may not be available in all areas. PLA also has a lower temperature resistance compared to PE, which can be a limitation for very hot foods.

WBBC (Wet Strength Barrier Board Coated) Paper

This type of paper is treated to enhance its strength when wet, making it suitable for more demanding applications like holding liquids or semi-liquids without soaking through. It often incorporates other coatings for added grease and moisture resistance.

The production of WBBC can be more resource-intensive, and depending on the coatings used, it might not be fully recyclable or compostable.

Benefits of Using Paper Materials for Take-Out Containers

  • Environmental Impact: Paper is sourced from renewable resources, and many paper containers are recyclable or compostable, reducing landfill waste.
  • Consumer Perception: Many consumers prefer paper packaging due to its lower environmental impact and the perception of a more natural product.
  • Customization: Paper can be easily printed on, allowing for customization and branding opportunities, which is a significant advantage for businesses.

Drawbacks of Using Paper Materials for Take-Out Containers

  • Durability: Even with coatings, paper may not be as durable as plastic, particularly with very hot or liquid foods that might cause the container to degrade or lose its shape.
  • Cost: Some types of treated or coated paper can be more expensive than their plastic counterparts, particularly those that are biodegradable or have specialized barriers.
  • Recycling and Composting Challenges: Not all paper take-out containers are created equal; depending on the type of coating used, some might not be recyclable or compostable, requiring specific facilities to process them appropriately.

Paper take-out containers, especially those using sustainable coatings like PLA, are part of the broader movement towards reducing the environmental footprint of food service industries. However, balancing cost, functionality, and environmental benefits is crucial for their broader adoption.


Aluminum is another popular material used for take-out containers due to its unique set of properties that offer both functionality and convenience in food service applications. They are very common in take out like Roasted Meats, or baked food. Here’s an overview of aluminum as a material for take-out containers, including its benefits and drawbacks:

Benefits of Using Aluminum Take-Out Containers

Heat Conductivity: Aluminum has excellent thermal conductivity, which means it can efficiently heat food evenly and rapidly. This makes it ideal for use in ovens or grills.

Temperature Tolerance: Aluminum containers can withstand a wide range of temperatures. They can be used for freezing meals or baking food directly in the container without any risk of melting or releasing harmful chemicals.

Barrier Protection: Aluminum provides a complete barrier to light, oxygen, moisture, and bacteria. For food products, this means a longer shelf life and protection from external contamination.

Recyclability: Aluminum is 100% recyclable and retains its properties indefinitely. Recycling aluminum also uses only about 5% of the energy required to produce the original metal, making it highly sustainable.

Lightweight: Aluminum containers are lightweight, which reduces transportation costs and the overall environmental impact associated with shipping and handling.

Versatility: Aluminum can be molded into various shapes and sizes, allowing for a range of applications from simple trays to elaborate gourmet food presentations.

Drawbacks of Using Aluminum Take-Out Containers

Cost: Aluminum can be more expensive than other materials like paper or some plastics due to the cost of raw materials and processing.

Non-Microwaveable: Aluminum cannot be used in microwave ovens, as metal reflects microwaves which can cause sparks and even damage the appliance.

Resource Intensive: While recyclable, the initial production of aluminum is energy-intensive and involves significant extraction and processing, which has environmental impacts.

Potential Health Concerns: There is some concern about aluminum leaching into food, particularly with acidic or spicy foods, although the actual health risks are generally considered to be very low.

Environmental Impact: Although aluminum is recyclable, the mining and refining process can be detrimental to the environment, producing significant amounts of greenhouse gases and other pollutants.

Aluminum take-out containers offer excellent heat resistance and food protection qualities, making them a favorite choice for many types of cooked and ready-to-reheat meals. However, their environmental and cost implications, along with limitations like non-suitability for microwave use, need to be considered by both businesses and consumers. Despite these drawbacks, the high recyclability and durability of aluminum often make it a preferred choice over less sustainable options.

Are take-out containers safe to use in the microwave?

It depends on the material of the container. Containers made from microwave-safe plastic, paper, or specific microwave-safe bioplastics are generally safe for microwave use. However, containers made from polystyrene foam, non-microwave-safe plastic, or any metal, including aluminum, should not be used in the microwave as they can melt, warp, or create a fire hazard.

Can take-out containers be recycled?

Many take-out containers are recyclable, but it depends on the local recycling rules and the material of the container. Plastic and aluminum containers are widely recycled, but they need to be rinsed clean of any food residue. Paper containers with a wax or plastic lining (like those used for soups or coffees) are often not recyclable unless specified by your local collection agency. However, some paper made containers using WBBC can be 100% recyclable and compostable. And PLA made paper containers are also recyclable.

Are there eco-friendly take-out containers available?

Yes, there are several eco-friendly alternatives to traditional plastic or foam containers. These include containers made from biodegradable plant fibers like bagasse (sugarcane), bamboo, and recycled paper. These options are designed to decompose more quickly than conventional materials and have a lesser impact on the environment. Check out more about Pando’s paper food packaging solution.

How can I tell if a take-out container is safe for food?

Look for labeling that indicates the container is “food-grade” or meets FDA (U.S. Food and Drug Administration) requirements for food safety. Containers specifically designed for food use are made to resist breaking down at high temperatures and won’t leach chemicals into food.